Peer review is a systematic process for evaluating the quality of research grant applications and scientific manuscripts. How does the peer review process establish credibility in scientific research? Are you ready to be a reviewer? Do you know what is expected of you?

The best and most popular stories of the year, as chosen by readers and editors

The Office of Postdoctoral Affairs is now seeking applicants for the Research Administration Fellowship. The Research Administration Fellowship is a 6-month program designed to provide future scientists and administrators with critical, CV-building experience in the field of research administration.

The deadline for application is January 23, 2015.

Publication in a peer-reviewed journal is essential for establishing scientific credibility, improving the health of society, and building a successful research career. Check out these selected resources for guidance in successfully navigating the ethical issues involved in disseminating research results.

The Future of Publishing: A New Page, March 27, 2013, is a special issue from Nature that looks at the transformation taking place in scientific publishing.

Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association provides resources related to open access publishing, including a list of Web sites, books, and guidelines.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) maintains an online inventory of open access, peer-reviewed journals.

The Ethics in Research & Publications Program provides resources and tools to increase the understanding of the ethical boundaries of scientific research and publishing. The program is a collaboration of an independent advisory panel of experts in research and publishing ethics and Elsevier.

The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals is most recognized for establishing criteria for authorship and also covers broader ethical areas including the conduct and reporting of research, publishing and editorial issues, and manuscript preparation and submission.

The Council of Science Editors White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications serves as a basis for ethical publishing practices, with reviewer roles and responsibilities featured in Section 2.3.

Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), established in 1997, has over 7,000 members worldwide (i.e., editors of academic journals and others interested in publication ethics) from all academic fields. COPE provides advice to editors and publishers in all areas of publication ethics.

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View the CHOP Policy on Authorship to learn responsibilities and guidelines for determining the qualifications, order, and steps for conflict resolution with regard to authorship in scientific and medical publications resulting from research conducted at CHOP.

Click here for more information on the CHOP Responsible Conduct of Research Program and Training Requirement.

The roles and responsibilities of researchers extend beyond the scientific community. Researchers may inspire young scientists through school or community initiatives; communicate new scientific results in lay language; engage the public in discussions on complex scientific issues; or serve as an expert advisor to policy makers at all levels of government.